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Pressure Cooker – All You Must Know About

We all must know about the pressure cooker what a common thing of our kitchen. That is used to make food. It is a common cookery in our regular day life. We usually use it to boil something or to prepare the food quickly.

The basic principles of all type of pressure cookers are same. It is a closed container that is used to boil something or to prepare food. As it is a closed container, when the heat reaches at high, the food started to be cooked faster. Even hard things like meat can be boiled within just 15 minutes inside the pressure cooker.

There are many kinds of pressure cookers are available in markets. Both Electric and non electric pressure are popular now a day. The using of both cookers is not as hard as you are thinking. One can easily get know about using it by reading the manual or seeing the introduction pictures which generally given outside of the packet.

We can see two types of pressure cooker. One of them is the old style that is being introduced as 1st generation pressure cooker. It has “Jiggle Top” which sits on the top of the cooker or being weighted by some heavy things. On the other one is 2nd generation which is the newest version of pressure cooker, which has a closed system and uses spring waves

Pressure Cooker electric

Every time of using the pressure cooker, you must be very careful. In case of using the electric pressure cookers, you should check it first that whether there is any lick in the wares or not. If there is even a single, very small pierce founds in the wires, then reject the pressure cooker or the electric wares instantly because it has the high risk to get electric shock when you will plug in to the switch. It also may the cause of death. So, beware of this kind of situation.

On the other hand, non- electric pressure cookers do not have these types of risk. But there is another risk while using it. You must fill water inside it before you situate it on your burner. The pressure cooker usually gets it vapors out with a whistle. If there is no water inside it, then is has high risk of getting horrible blast and may burn the people who are near to the cooker.

non- electric pressure

Please read the manual of every time using of the pressure cooker, clean it from both the inner and outer side. Store it in a clean dry place. When you finish your cooking, please clean it again that any food may not be inside. If it does, it may spread a very bad smell later. Keep safe all the parts of a pressure cooker. Lacking of a single part, your cooker may be unable to use in future.

A pressure cooker is a very useful thing for every house. So if you don’t have any yet, then rash to the market and grab the latest one. It will add a new look and dimension to your kitchen with its unique look and quality.

By Jonh  Mar 24th 2015 Posted in Tips  No Comments »

Types Of Grow Lights & Why LED Grow Light is Best Grow Light

Types Of Grow Lights & Why LED Grow Light is Best Grow Light

If you are a serious grower you must be know about grow lights. During the natural translation when sunlight is not available grown light takes places. Now a day’s besides personal growers many commercial growers arise rapidly. If you are interested to know about grown light but didn’t find enough resource this article for you. People use grow light in poor location e.g. inside the room, during winter, during heavy rainfall that’s mean purpose of grow lights is produce light to help plants to grow.

feature_image

There are several types of grow lights. Most familiar grow lights are listed below:

  • Incandescent Lighting
  • Halogen Lighting
  • Fluorescent lights
  • Full spectrum fluorescent lights
  • High Intensity Discharge lights (HIDs)
  • LED grow lights

Among all others LED grow lights are the best. LED grow lights provide high quality service as well as save a huge energy. If you feel curiosity why LED grow lights are best keep an eye on this article.

Why LED Grow Light Is The Best Choice?

Though various grow lighting solution available LED lighting becomes first choice day by day. But why??? See the answers below:

1. Long Lasting:

LED Grow lights are durable and long lasting. Lifetime of LED lights approximately between 50,000 to 100,000 hours. You can use this light continuously 11 hours per day. LED lights are easily maintainable so dead bulbs are not an issue.

long

Those plants need continuous lighting LED grow lights are the only solution to them. Without proper lighting growth cycle must be hampered. Hence, LED can provide continuous lighting people choose LED grow light first.

 

2. Specific wavelengths:

Wavelength is a great factor for plants. Different plants need different wavelengths at different stage. For proper growth right wavelength is important. By using LED grow lights specific wavelength can be easily gained at different stage of plants.

wavelength

Photo: LED wave is the Best

Photosynthesis is important fact for plants. For photosynthesis right wavelength between 400 to 500nm or 600 to 700nm can be implemented by LED grow light effectively. At different stage plants absorb certain amount of light. By using LEDs certain amount of lighting can be gain and its saves a lot of energy. If plants gain right absorption growth will be noticeable.

All other grow lights can’t provide specific wavelength easily. So, people pick LED grow light always for proper growth of their plants.

3. Handy Design:

LED grow are designed such a way that growers can easily use them in different place and stage. LED grow light can be arranged in verities number of arrangement. Depending on the growing needs of the plants LED grow can be structured in wide range of design or model.

design

Handy Design

Some arrangement can’t be possible without LED grow lights. Rearrangements between plants and multi vertical like inter lighting designs between plant only possible in LED grow lights reviews. So, people prefer LED grow light for handy and nice design.

4. Proper Color Combination for Rapid Growth:

Proper color combination is responsible for rapid growth of plants. This combination is nicely gained by LED grow lights. LED grow lights ensure maximum light absorption and help the plants for photosynthesis.

color

Proper Color Combination

In other LED’s it is tough to gain expected color combination and optimal absorption. Only LED’s can gain the expected level. So, among all other growing lights LED lights are best for color combination.

5. Gradual dimming

Gradual dimming saves life time of bulbs. LED grow lights provide gradual dimming service to reduce risk of early damage.

6. Great Value in Low Price:

Great advantage of LED grow lights is these lights are great for energy saving. Compare to the all others grow lights LED grow light can save up to 75% of energy. Compare to the HID lights LED lights save up to 40% energy level. Some models of LED lights are friendlier pocket solution for small home users. LED grow lights offer more economic for economic purpose.

No one wants to burn his/ her wallet. LED lights are long lasting and durable with lower price. So, people buy LED grow lights rather than other grow lights..

7. A lot of Options:

People can choose their desire product from various ranges of products. LED grow lights are available in 10 to 20 watts. People can buy based on their needs. So, LED grow lights give user small to economic a lot of options.

So, indeed among all other grow lights LED is best for its quality performance in lower price with various options.

That’s end now. Let us know if you have nay query. Your feedback is highly expected.

By Jonh  Feb 23th 2015 Posted in Tips  No Comments »

How To Choose A Cooking Clay Pot

Clay pot is very popular for cooking. Once it usually made by and being used only for village people. But now a day the technique of making clay pot has been upgraded very much. It has also developed the designs and quality. So that, it is becoming more popular day by day among all classed people among both village and urban people.

There are many clay made household wares like pot, plate, glass, flower vas, etc in the market. But if you want to buy cooking clay pot, then you have to choose it carefully. It is known to all that clay pots are very sensible as it is made by soil or clay. Your little bit carelessness can damage or destroy it fully even before of your use. SO, if you want to buy and maintain it successfully, then you have to be more careful.

How to choose a cooking clay pot 1

Check the clay pot very deeply before you buy it. As you are about to cook in it, then please check whether any hole, pierces or damages inside it or not. If find a single scratch inside or outside of it, then just reject it. Because you can’t use this type of pot for cooking. Moreover, it has the more risk breaking anytime.

Examine your pot carefully before get it. As it is made by soil and soil contains much water, the clay pot may get wet for a long time. The potters usually burn the pot after making it. But if it gets still wet accidently, then the pot may becomes weak and break anytime. So, if you found the pots while buying, then lease do not chose them.

How to choose a cooking clay pot 2

An earthen pot is more capable to tolerate more heat than any other pot. You should give heat by burner after buying it. It will make your pot more strong and destroy the germs that may be inside it. But like every pot, an earthen pot should be washed first. You can use soft cloth and washing liquid to wash it. But you have to be more careful to while washing it that it may not slip from your hand or get scratched.

How to choose a cooking clay pot 3

As the pot made by clay, it holds the high temperature well, foods get be prepared quickly and more tasteful. Now a day people are becoming more conscious about their health. Earthen pot may be a great solution for them as it sucks the oil of the food after cooking. Many people love to eat the food which was made inside the earthen food. Because sometimes smoky smells come out with the food which was prepared by the soil made pot. That also increases the appetite of having that food.

People are becoming more fashionable day by day. They search and want a unique collection of their own. Clay made pots are usurping a great part because of its different look and unique style. The colorful earthen pots added a new looks among our ordinary cookeries. It’s shown the dignity with own style and quality.

 

By Jonh  Feb 18th 2015 Posted in Tips  No Comments »

How To Keep a Nice and Healthy Lawn

Everybody wants to make their house more beautiful than others. Lawn is an also a part of our house. If you keep it nice, neat and clean, then it also denotes your personality and choice before others.

But if you want to keep your lawn nice and healthy, then you will need to maintain some method. Some tips are given below:

You should not use more fertilizers on your lawn. Fertilizer makes the soil fertile. But we know excess of anything is bad. So, using of over fertilizers can also make the soil barren. So use the only amount of fertilizer that the soil needed.

In lawn, its usually seen that the grasses grow fast. It is a good sign that the grasses get sufficient light and water .So that it becomes healthier and grows faster. But if the grasses grow randomly, it may look odd. So, you should maintain all the grass in a same certain size like 3 or 4 inches.

How to Keep a Nice and Healthy Lawn

Apply water on the grass regularly. The grasses usually get almost all nutritious elements from soil. But if you pour water regularly on the grasses, then it will also help them to grow faster and healthier than before. And wit will also look very green.

Do not apply any pesticides or insecticides on your lawn. We see that many people use various chemical as insecticide for their lawn. But we should not do this anymore. We may not know about all types of insect or bacteria. Though many insects are harmful to the plants, some of them are may be beneficial to them also. They can also protect the plants by becoming a firewall from them. So, if you really need to protect your lawn, then use herbal method not the chemicals.

insecticides

You should notice that your grasses are remaining green or turning to yellow or brown? Yellow or brown leaves denote the sickness of plants. SO, you must be careful about it. If there is dry yellow grass in lawn, cut or remove them from there that they may not affect others.

Buy fertilizers wisely. Notice the ingredients that had been used to make the fertilizers. You can also take the professional help to choose the fertilizers. If you do this, you can treat your lawn in a proper way. Just buy the chemicals what your lawn is badly needed.

How to Keep a Nice and Healthy Lawn

You may take proficient assist if you want to make your lawn perfect. There are several companies who give the service to make the lawn special. They know when or how your lawn needs fertilizer, how much it should be applied. What kind of insecticides should be applied or not etc. These companies help to make your lawn greener, nice, neat & clean as well as healthy. If your lawn looks like a wonderful one, then, it will enhance the beauty of your home’s side.

It will be much better if you can take care of your lawn own. It will reduce your cost and also decorate it with your own choice.

By Jonh  Feb 04th 2015 Posted in Tips  No Comments »

10 Tips for Choosing The Right Valentine’s Day Gift

Valentine’s Day is a very special day for every lover or couples. Everybody wants to delight his/her lover on that day. That’s why they used to arrange some surprises or gift for their lover. But, they may need to be more serious than someone else while presenting a gift. Here, 10 Tips are given below:

#Tips 1: Knows your lovers choice:

You want to make your lovers happy. So, you must be familiar with his/her preference. You should not gift what she/he doesn’t like even more. That will not make him/her happy, that will compelled to have a negative thinking about you that you doesn’t know even his/her choice.

You should also be aware of your lover’s favorite color. You can gift her according to her most favorable color.

#Tips 2: Concentrate about his/her interest:

Try to concentrate your lover when he/she is talking. She may talk about her interest any time. That will help you to choose gift for her according to her own interest. If you do not do this, you may skip that point. And that will make you confused in future to choose gift for her. So, just keep attention when your most favorite person talks about something.

# Tips 3: Do not gift what she does not like:

You must be careful while choosing gift for your lover that what your lover doesn’t like anymore. It can annoy her too. You should not also give her anything that she may frighten. That will not make her closer to you but can also create a distance between both of you. So, think wisely to give any gift to your lover.

10 Tips for Choosing the Right Valentine’s Day Gift

 

#Tips: 4: Remember the past

Try to recall your memory. Do your lover asked for any gift as joke or kidding to you? If you have the habit of forgetting anything, then please note down in anywhere that you easily get to know when you really needed. You can surprise your boy friend / girl friend by giving gift what she/he wanted in many days before. While he will open the gift that he joked and you bring for the person, he/she must be excited than ever.

#Tips: 5: Maintain the quality:

You cannot gift any low quality product to your lover. That will denote your choice before them. It may not too much expensive but should be a high quality product. It has been seen in many where that many people like to store the gift very carefully what their lovers gifted them on Valentine’s Day to make their day memorable.

10 Tips for Choosing the Right Valentine’s Day Gift

#Tips 6: Be aware of the budget:

You should not satisfy your loved one only with the gift. You should also do something special to surprise him/her. So, you should also maintain some sufficient budget to arrange more things to celebrate the day.

#Tips 7: Research on product more:

Just research more and more on the gift that you want to give him/her on Valentine’s Day. That more you research, the might you get more information about it. You can get information from others as well as can browse about it on internet also.

#Tips 8: Try to give some unique:

Everyone wants to look different than others. So, you should try to give the latest or unique product to your lover. Like if you want to gift him/or dresses, purse, wallet, ornaments etc, then please chose the latest design. But must be careful of their choice.

#Tips 9: Wrap the gift with a different style:

You should wrap the gift with a nice wrapping paper. You can choose it according to your gf/bf’s favorite color. There can be lovable sticker or card above the wrapped gift etc. You can also tie the gift colorful ribbons.

# Tips 10: Present the gift with a lovely manner and in a lovely environment:

10 Tips for Choosing the Right Valentine’s Day Gift

To give your special gift you should make the environment also very special. You can also give chocolates, flowers etc with the gift. In fact, you can also write 2 lines poem to make her more pleasant. All just I want to say do not let lack of anything to make special the day for your special ones.

By Jonh  Jan 30th 2015 Posted in Tips  No Comments »

Small Space Organization Tips

Small Space Organization Tips
We all have our own house. Some of us has big house but some of us has very small house. But it’s not a great matter whether our house is big or small. A proper way of managing the furniture and other things of your house can make it beautiful, neat and clean. You can decorate it with your own choice or can take help from the professional architecture or from the interior designer.
If there is a very small space in your home, then you need organize the furniture very wisely. You should think about to reduce the place at first. You can frame your bed with wooden or card board material. You can store many things like books, paper, necessary medicine etc inside it. So, when you require the items for using, you will not have to go far from your bed. You can also add glass on it or can add more color or materials to make it more attractive. Even you can adjust a table with your bed too.

Like the bed, it will be better if your other furniture will be multi-purposes. If you don’t have space to make closet in your house, then, you can use the space under the chair or your bed too! Then, you can store many small things inside it. It can be also used as a drawer. If you add labels on it, then it will be much easier to get your stuffs soon.

Small Space Organization Tips

Many people may have interest of reading books. But may have not enough place to store so many books in their houses. It can be a great solution if they maintain a wall attached bookshelves. It will reduce the place as well as the books will be well maintained. They can also add glass and lock system in it to protect their books from dust and stealing.

Small Space Organization Tips

If you use your home’s wall and ceiling in a different way, then it may save huge place of your home. Without buying or gathering more furniture in your house, you can use furniture by adjusting with your walls. It will make your home more decorative as well as help to give a different look than others. Moreover you will not be so much tensed about your small home space as their will be less furniture.

Small Space Organization Tips

You can hang your bags, paintings, hangers. Wall fans etc on the walls. Then you will not need to bother about keeping this here and there in your place. If you do this, you can also find them easily when you will need them.

Use small things in your room. If you use small things rather than big ones, then, your room will not look so much tiny as it. But, if you get big furniture in your room, then, it will seem to be strange and usurp huge place so that you will not able maintain the other staff which should be kept in. So, think wisely to select furniture of your room as well as for your house.

By Jonh  Jan 29th 2015 Posted in Sport, Tips  No Comments »

Do you need your air ducts cleaned?

Do you need your air ducts cleaned?
At first, we need to know what an Air duct is. An air is like a ventilation system of a house that works to carry cool or hot air into your house. Being a shape of square or round, it is normally made with metal sheets. Sometimes, air ducts come with a shape of a tube too. It usually being used as a cooling or ventilation system of a house or building. It usually being fixed near to the main heating or cooling system of the houses. It works to get the house’s inter air out and brings outer air inside it.

air ducts

As air ducts is being fixed near the walls or on the ceiling, it may create problems to look after of it every time. Even, without proper maintenance, it gets contaminate or stops working because of dust. So we should check it often that it works properly or not!

As it’s an essential part of a house, we should take proper care of it. If we cannot clean it, you should call a professional. It usually fixes at the construction of new home or house. So, we should discuss or call the contractor or the designer whoever had made the design. They know more than us and can give the advices to maintain it in a proper way as well as how to clean it. Even if, you shift in a new home, you can consult with the previous home owner about this. It’s usually suggested cleaning after 3 or 5 years.

 Cleaning air ducts by professionals with machine

Cleaning air ducts by professionals with machine

If you want to clean the air duct of your own, then you need a proper knowledge about it. As it uses to as a ventilation system of your house, then, dust is the main problem with it. It also can contain many germs or bacteria. So, if lacking of proper knowledge, it may harms your health condition and allergic problems. different types of liquid and other chemicals are used by the companies to clean the air duct. They are professionals. So, if do not aware of the chemicals and using of it, then, please do not apply them.

how to clean air ducts

Cleaning air ducts by own with tools

Even if, you untie the joints and cannot joint them again properly, then, it can contaminate your home’s air rather than cleaning it. So it will be wise decision to clean air duct by the experts. But, if you have experience of cleaning it, then, you can approach to clean it. It will also save your expenses.

It’s necessary to clean your air duct. You have to keep it in your mind that dirty air duct can press a great impact in your home’s both indoor and outdoor activities. If it is not cleaned, it the right time in the right way, then it can pollute your home’s atmosphere as well as on the health of your family members. So, protect your home and present clean, fresh atmosphere to the members and do not stop thinking about cleaning the air duct when its need.

By Jonh  Jan 23th 2015 Posted in Sport, Tips  No Comments »

Types Of Motorsports

There are several types of racing or you can say form of racing that includes in motorsports. Let’s have some quick look over those.

  • Drag racing

In the easiest word, drag racing is a form of motorsport where contestants strive in-between them. It’s basically a game of speed where contestants race in parallel roads from starting to finish point. The distance of this short of race is around 200 meters. First contestant to cross the finish line determines the winner.

  • Circuit race

Circuit race is a tactical expertise with a large number of contenders riding in close distance, commonly can be defined as riding in a ‘bunch’. Learning to ride safely towards the target to be a winner and efficiently in a bunch is a primary skill to be developed at entry level. Grid, usually awarded to the driver who sets the fastest lap in qualifying, is known as pole position. There are number of laps that vary from race track and also for cars. This type of racing is most famous worldwide.

 

  • Sprint

Sprint racing is a high-speed racing in which competitor take several turns in a race track in order to set a time. Among the racers the fastest time holder wins the race. The race circuit can be a lap or it can also start from one point and ends at another point.

  • Autocross

An autocross is a racing competition where drivers move one at a time through a defined track on unstable surface. Autocross racing varies from road racing and other racing in that usually there is only one car on the track where competitor racing athwart the time rather than other racer.

  • RALLYING

Rallying is a form of game like no other! The game doesn’t delay for critical condition or bad weather. Rally racing is normally real cars racing against the time on road with sharp turns. The off roads are normally being muddy and sleeper where being unmindful for one single second can cause serious accident. In this format of game safety precautions are given the major priority. There is no fixed time table for the events. Events can be scheduled more than one or two days and the driver have to drive hundreds of miles through rain, storm, and night even.

  • FORMULA RACING

Formula racing is an open wheeled sport where the game regulations applied only for the single seated motor car. The formula racing is commonly known as formula one, Two, Three. Some series can also be described in term of “Formula Racing” like GP2 series and formula 3000.

These are the varieties of formula racing. Formula 3 and formula GP2 Holding their positions are slight below than formula one racing.

Formula racing has earned his fame worldwide because it is a game of compassion and excitement.

  • Motorbike racing

Motorbike racing is also called motorcycle racing and bike racing. It is a game of high speed motorcycle or bike. There are several types of racing in this form of racing. Such as Road racing, grand prix, SBK (super bike racing, Motocross or MX, Super cross or SX, Speedway racing, off track racing.

Among this type of motorcycle racing grand prix is most famous worldwide. Grand prix is basically a bike racing with a power of 1000 cc. This form of racing came from MOTO GP.

 

By Jonh  Jan 21th 2015 Posted in Sport  No Comments »

How To Protect Wrap Your Books

How To Protect Wrap Your Books

A book wrap protects your fragile tomes from the elements.

Carrying a “Boy Scout Handbook” or “Fieldbook” is a must on camp-outs. But books take a beating in the wilderness.

You need a book wrap, a protective pouch that wraps up and closes with a cord and buttons.

It’s a great way to tote your book and protect it from damage. You’ll need:

* a long strip of strong fabric, such as canvas, thin leather or imitation leather

* two buttons or toggles

* a large sewing needle or sewing machine

thread, strong enough to use with the fabric

* 18-inch-long cord to secure buttons

The length of the material should be one inch longer than the length of your selected book. The width is measured by wrapping the material around the book three times.

Cut two smaller pieces of the same material to form the pouch of the book wrap. Using the bottom of the book as a guide, measure the thickness of the book plus one inch and the width of the book plus one-half inch. Cut out the material.

Hem the top and bottom of the long material to prevent fraying. (You don’t need to do this if you’re using leather.) Fold them over one-half inch and sew.

Now you are ready to stitch the pouch. Flip the long material over so you can’t see the seams you just hemmed. Fold the bottom of the long piece so the material covers the entire book.

Remove the book, and overlap one small piece over one edge of the pouch, about one-half inch on each side. Sew in place, and do the same on the other edge.

Sewing the corners is the trickiest part of this job. Go slowly and carefully at these points.

Turn the pouch inside out so the seams are inside. You should have a three-sided pouch with an opening at the top for your book.

Insert your book in the pouch and wrap the material completely around the book and across the front. Cut the material two inches from the edge, and hem the bottom. You can cut the bottom straight across, or at an angle like the one in the picture.

The last step is to sew your buttons on the book wrap. Handmade buttons or toggles of wood or bone will give your book wrap a frontier touch. Recycled buttons from an old jacket can also be used.

Sew a button to the bottom of your flap. Sew the other one on the actual pouch just below the flap. You may need to unwrap the material for this.

For extra support, glue a piece of material behind each button.

Attach the 18-inch cord to the top button. To close, wrap the cord in a circular motion around both buttons.

By Jonh  Jan 14th 2015 Posted in Sport, Tips  No Comments »

Garment Industry

Garment Industry

In late July 1864, 800 Philadelphia seamstresses put their names on a petition addressed to the Honorable Edwin M. Stanton, U.S. secretary of war. Titled “Twenty Thousand Working Women of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania”–so clearly speaking for more than themselves–it protested their abysmally low wages at the Schuylkill Arsenal and the outsourcing of work on government contracts to private manufacturers who paid even less. Incredibly, their petition worked, garnering the attention of both Stanton and his boss, President Abraham Lincoln, acquiring Lincoln’s endorsement and earning the womenan invitation to Washington. In the midst of a nerve-wracking reelection campaign, President Lincoln met with a delegation of the Philadelphia women in August 1864.

The episode draws our attention to something significant in the history of the war: the way the war economy prompted an expansion of women’s waged work and created openings for collective organization.

Sewing had long been women’s work. In the 19th century in places like Philadelphia and New York City, the center of the garment industry, it had offered a meager living to desperate women, many of them immigrants. Sewing was not regarded as a skill. The labor market was perennially overcrowded, starvation prices on piecework were the norm and seamstresses had little bargaining power.

By 1864 the conditions of wage work for the government presented different opportunities. By one estimate as many as 300,000 women entered the labor market during the war. They did a wide range of war work for the U.S. government and private contractors. Women worked in U.S. arsenals in Cincinnati, St. Louis, Detroit and New York, as well as Philadelphia, sewing uniforms, haversacks, tents, etc. But others did far more dangerous munitions work in arsenals at Indianapolis, Watertown, Mass.; Allegheny, Pa.; Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.: Young girls and women (females were preferred) spent their days pouring gunpowder into cartridges in rooms stacked with Minie balls, shells and barrels of gunpowder.

images (4)

The Allegheny Arsenal had exploded in September 1862, killing at least 78 people–mostly women and girls working in the cartridge room. Women ran screaming from the building with their clothes on fire or flung themselves out windows. Others were blown up. Pieces of bodies were found in the river nearby, in the streets and hanging from the trees. In June 1864 there was another explosion–this time in the D.C. Arsenal, also in a cartridge room; 22 died that day. Stanton and Lincoln walked in the funeral procession.

Women increasingly protested the conditions of their work. At the arsenal in Watertown, female munitions workerspetitioned their supervisors repeatedly about wages, employment practices and, especially, about safety violations–including the men’s habit of experimenting with gunpowder. In 1864 they petitioned their congressman, Daniel Gooch, who called hearings of the Committee on the Conduct of the War. In their testimony the women spoke of their rights and of themselves as patriotic war workers, and they challenged conventional gender assumptions by reminding the legislators that they had husbands and sons wounded in the war–men now, as they pointedly put it, “dependent upon us.”

The Philadelphia women who claimed to speak for 20,000 also knew how to stand up for themselves. A year earlier, in the summer of 1863, they had written their first petition to Secretary Stanton after 145 of them were laid off for fading to meet the terms of a new loyalty test designed to preserve arsenal jobs for loyal women and soldiers’ wives. Those who could not “provide written evidence of their relationship to U.S. Army soldiers” or who “belonged to families opposed to the war,” were laid off. As historian Judith Giesberg explains in her wonderful recent book Army at Home, the loyalty test has to be seen in the context of the New York City Draft Riots and the heightened concern about Copperheadism in its aftermath. The women, many of whom were surely Democrats, opposed–like the men in their families–to the Lincoln administration’s embrace of emancipation, did not let Republican threats hold them back. They held public meetings, wrote resolutions and petitioned Stanton demanding the removal of the assistant quartermaster of the arsenal. They appear to have joined with seamstresses in New York also determined to hold onto government work, and formed advocacy groups and unions such as the Working Women’s Protective Union and the Working Women’s Union (in New York).

The petition of the “Twenty Thousand Working Women of Philadelphia” thus was part of a larger history: a wave of labor organizing among women wage workers, and especially seamstresses in Philadelphia, Cincinnati and New York in 1863 and 1864.

In their petition the Philadelphia women appealed to Stanton’s generosity. They spoke about their sacrifices for their country and their vulnerability as women who are “husbandless and fatherless.” But if you read the petition I think you will see that it is really a demand for justice to them as working women. They cast themselves as “giving their all to their country,” and now approach the government, they wrote, “not as beggars asking for alms, but as American matrons and daughters, asking an equitable price for the labor.”

Lincoln–a man who, after all, knew about earning a living–apparently agreed. “It is certainly true in equity, that the laboring women in our employment, should be paid at least as much as they were at the beginning of the war,” he wrote Stanton, instructing him to look into the issue. The Philadelphia women got their audience with the president and a raise in the piece rates paid to those in government employment.

Yet the Lincoln administration predictably evinced no willingness to regulate the conditions of work in the lucrative private sector of government contracts. The meeting with the Philadelphia women was no sooner over than Lincoln and Stanton got another petition, this time from Cincinnati seamstresses.

Stephanie McCurry is the Christopher H. Browne distinguished professor of history at the University of Pennsylvania and author of the award-winning Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South.

By Jonh  Jan 11th 2015 Posted in Sport, Tips  No Comments »